drA person can also become ill if blood glucose levels rise too high, a condition known as hyperglycemia.

People with diabetes should see a health care provider who will help them learn to manage their diabetes and who will monitor their diabetes control. Most people with diabetes get care from primary care physicians–internists, family practice doctors, or pediatricians. Often, having a team of providers can improve diabetes care. A team can include:

  • a primary care provider such as an internist, a family practice doctor, or a pediatrician
  • an endocrinologist (a specialist in diabetes care)
  • a dietitian, a nurse, and other health care providers who are certified diabetes educators–experts in providing information about managing diabetes
  • a podiatrist (for foot care)
  • an ophthalmologist or an optometrist (for eye care)

and other health care providers, such as cardiologists and other specialists. In addition, the team for a pregnant woman with type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes should include an obstetrician who specializes in caring for women with diabetes. The team can also include a pediatrician or a neonatologist with experience taking care of babies born to women with diabetes.

The goal of diabetes management is to keep levels of blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol as close to the normal range as safely possible. A major study, the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), showed that keeping blood glucose levels close to normal reduces the risk of developing major complications of type 1 diabetes.

This 10-year study, completed in 1993, included 1,441 people with type 1 diabetes. The study compared the effect of two treatment approaches–intensive management and standard management–on the development and progression of eye, kidney, nerve, and cardiovascular complications of diabetes. Intensive treatment aimed to keep A1C levels as close to normal (6 percent) as possible. Researchers found that study participants who maintained lower levels of blood glucose through intensive management had significantly lower rates of these complications. More recently, a follow-up study of DCCT participants showed that the ability of intensive control to lower the complications of diabetes has persisted more than 10 years after the trial ended.